Main characteristics of rowing technique
Be aware, feel the technique in theory. We will try to deal with the main points of rowing sports, in all their diversity. Rowing technique – a set of expediently organized motor actions of the rower, ensuring the forward movement of the boat and its retention on a given course.
Rowing sports, in all their diversity, such as rowing and canoeing, academic and popular rowing, rowing on dray and dragon boats, etc., belong to the group of cyclical sports. The movement of an athlete in these types is a chain of tens, hundreds and even thousands of relatively complete, similar and repetitive links – cycles of movement. The sporting result here is determined by the time to overcome a given distance or distance, which the athlete overcomes, for a certain predetermined time. In essence, the result is determined by the speed of movement of the athlete at a distance, which in turn is made up of speed in each of the cycles of movement. The cycle of movement is an ideal object of study in the biomechanics of sports locomotion, since it is in this link that all the reserves and shortcomings, all the pros and cons of the athlete’s movement are concentrated. On the other hand, all internal processes in the athlete’s body are bio-energetic, physiological, psychological, etc. and changes in his condition, as well as, all external factors (favorable and not very) always manifest themselves only in movement and through movement, one way or another, are reflected in the characteristics of the cycle of movements of an athlete.
Rowing technique – a set of expediently organized motor actions of the rower, ensuring the forward movement of the boat and its retention on a given course. Distinguish the form and content of rowing technique. The concept of form generalizes such movement indicators as direction, trajectory, amplitude of movement of individual links, their mutual arrangement at different moments, and other spatial characteristics. The content of the technique means the size and mutual coordination of muscular efforts, i.e. intermuscular coordination, as well as the forces arising from the muscular effort that affect the environment (the force of the blade’s pressure on the water, the boat, the oar). The form and content of technology exist in organic connection and unity. Muscle effort generates movement of the rower’s body and paddle. The movement of the paddle in the water causes the force of the blade stop, which, when transmitted to the boat, causes it to move, and the movement of the boat increases the resistance force of the aquatic environment.
Identification of changes in the basic characteristics of rowing equipment in the process of primary education, their dynamics during the passage of competitive distance from rowers in canoes, as well as with a programmed stepwise increase in speed in canoeing in an organized experiment.
Organization and methodology. The pedagogical, follow-up experiment on a group of beginning rowers was organized on the basis of a children’s and youth sports school in rowing and canoeing in March-June 1999. The duration of the observations was 4.5 months. It was attended by 14 young rowers in kayaks at the age of 12-13 years of the first year of study. The first testing was carried out when beginning rowers as a whole mastered the technique of rowing and could overcome 50 meters or more. The registration of the main characteristics of the rowing technique on the kayak when performing a test exercise – passing a segment of 50 meters with the maximum speed at the moment, was carried out with a period of two weeks. Testing was carried out after a standard warm-up at the same time and in the same weather conditions. The registration of the motion characteristics of the young rowers during the passage of the segment was carried out by two stopwatches: one recorded the result of the passage, the other the time of five cycles of movement, which characterizes the rowing pace. The average speed of the rower, the pace at a distance and hire – the distance per cycle, calculated by known methods.
A study of the characteristics of rowers kayakers in the process of passing a competitive distance was conducted at the rowing base of the Regional Rowing Club in October 2001 during the training camp of the national team, 8 athletes took part in the experiment – existing highly qualified rowers (cmcmk –2 and ms) ). Athletes passed a distance of 500 m in the competitive mode and a segment of 50 m in the control mode. Registration and recording of biomechanical indicators at a distance of 500 meters was carried out using video recording, and when testing at 50 m – using the methods of chronometry and tempometry.
An experiment with a stepped programmable increase in speed was conducted on the water-rowing base of the FSO of the trade unions “Russia” during the training session of the Russian national team. Rowers-canoeists took part in the research – 15 people of different sports qualifications.